一日で254人が登頂したエベレスト ネコも杓子も日本の爺さんも


装備の近代化、山岳天気予報の精密化、山頂付近の固定されたロープなどで だれでもアタック可能になった

1983年にはいちばん登頂者が多かった日で8人、1993年のある最多の一日で40人 2012年になると、一日に最多で254人が頂上に立った

ナスジオNational Geographicによれば 1990年に18%だった、登頂をめざした者に対する、登頂者の割合は2012年には56%と格段に増加した

todaypic 20130622 everest.jpg
Mountaineers wait their turn at the Hillary Step

晴天の絶好のコンディションの時には 頂上付近には100m以上の長い、登頂待ちの行列ができ、エベレスト というよりは まるでマックの店の前の様相と皮肉られる始末


欧州などには エベレストの登山を制限する諸案が提出されているが シェルパたちの村は、登山者の落とす金が減るので大反対らしい




ま ジョニーには 登山家ジョージ・マロリーの「そこに山があるから(Because it is there. )」は一生、理解できないだろう


ヨットの堀江爺さんも 登山の日本ぢぢい もなんとかのひとつ覚え みたいだね


Six decades after it was conquered, mountaineers complain that the summit of Mount Everest has become virtually gridlocked with climbers. How did the world's highest mountain become so congested?

In May 1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay stood alone together at the very top of the world.

Nowadays, the same spot is rather less desolate.

Thanks to advances in mountaineering equipment and the indefatigable efforts of Sherpa guides, more climbers than ever are reaching the peak of Mount Everest - a landmark that was once believed to be impossible to surmount.

According to National Geographic, in 1990 18% of summit attempts were successful. By 2012 that figure stood at 56%.

But this has come at a cost. Critics say the summit has become as congested as a five-lane motorway during bank holiday weekend.

On a single day in 2012, no fewer than 234 climbers reached the peak. By contrast, as recently as 1983 the most successful ascents in a single day was eight, and a decade later that figure stood at 40.

This year some complained of waiting two-and-a-half hours in queues at bottlenecks on their way to the summit.

A striking photograph by German mountaineer Ralf Dujmovits - which showed a queue hundreds-long snaking its way up during 2012 - ignited a debate about whether the procession was ruining enjoyment of the ascent.

Westerners can pay anything from $10,000 (£6,600) to $100,000 (£66,000) for permits to climb the mountain and guides to accompany them, and a sizeable tourist industry has sprung up around the base - bringing with it complaints about litter and poor sanitation for miles around.

"There were just people everywhere," says Ayisha Jessa, 31, a keen climber from London who recently visited Everest's base camp. At the nearby village of Namachi, she says, "it's completely commercialised - everything is intended for the Western traveller".

For many serious climbers, all this has served to devalue Everest.

"It isn't a wilderness experience - it's a McDonald's experience," says Graham Hoyland, an experienced mountaineer and author of The Last Hours on Everest, an account of the ill-fated 1924 ascent by George Mallory and Andrew Irvine.

Advances in weather forecasting mean climbers time their attempts to the same few days each year, worsening the bottlenecks. A better understanding of altitude sickness has also helped more mountaineers ascend 8,848m (29,029ft) to the summit.

For their financial outlay, Westerners are given a plentiful supply of oxygen and, very often, a Nepalese mountain guide assigned specifically to ensure they get to the top.

The tour parties also ascend using fixed ropes, which help less accomplished climbers but are believed by many elite mountaineers to detract from the sport.

Thanks to all this assistance, more than 3,000 individuals have scaled the mountain since 1953.

They include Californian Jordan Romero, who in 2010 became the youngest person to climb Everest aged 13, and 80-year old Yuichiro Miura from Japan, who set the most recent record for the oldest summiteer. An 81-year-old, Nepalese Min Bahadur Sherchan, is attempting to snatch Miura's title.

"Normally, as long as they are not too ill or too weak, nearly everyone - if they have enough money and patience - can get up Everest," says Eberhard Jurgalski, who has attempted to chronicle every Everest ascent since 1953.

"Also, if the weather hasn't been good for a few weeks it becomes much more crowded on the days you can climb."

Some worry that the influx of inexperienced climbers on to such potentially hazardous terrain could have tragic consequences.

"You have people going up there who don't know how to operate the ropes or use the crampons," says Hoyland. "There's a huge disaster waiting to happen."

In 1996, eight people died within 36 hours near the summit. In 2012, some 10 lives were lost on the mountain, three of them Sherpas.

So it's not surprising that tensions have built up.

According to Hoyland, experienced climbers have grown frustrated that long queues of amateurs using fixed ropes are slowing them down.

Tempers on the mountain boiled over in April when a scuffle broke out at 7,470m (24,500ft) between two well-known European climbers, Ueli Steck and Simone Moro, and a group of Nepalese mountain guides.

While complaints are still made about litter and human waste on the mountain, a series of clean-up expeditions has improved the environmental situation, Hoyland says.

But as Nepalese authorities face calls to take further action, proposals to remedy Everest's congestion have sharply divided climbers.

One expedition company has suggested installing a ladder at the Hillary Step, a rocky outcrop just before the summit, where only one person can go up or down at any one time. But purists complain this would lessen the challenge of scaling the mountain.

Another proposed solution would be to limit the number of climbers. Until 1985, the Nepalese authorities allowed only one expedition on each route to the summit at any one time, and in theory this practice could be revived.

Others suggest, candidates for a permit could be required to undergo training or at least demonstrate mountaineering experience. "If everyone going up had at least a little bit of an idea about the culture of climbing, that would make a big difference," says Hoyland.

But the notion of imposing quotas sits uneasily with many in the free-spirited world of mountaineering.

Sir Chris Bonington, who reached the summit aged 50 in 1985, says he is grateful that he was there at a time when crowds were restricted.

However, while he believes there is much that can be done to improve Everest's management, he feels uneasy with the idea of denying to others the opportunity he enjoyed.

"If you say there are only 100 or 200 people coming each year, that's a lot of people who will never be able to share the incredible personal experience of getting to the top of the mountain," Sir Chris says.

Restricting the number of visitors would also have a major impact on those who rely on tourism for their income.

"It's a mountain that people live on, and the local community is completely supported by the climbers," says Jessa.

The debate will rumble on. And as long as the memory of Hillary and Norgay's achievement persists, the crowds will keep coming.


posted by 美容外科医ジョニー Plastic Surgeon Johnny at 23:51| 東京 ☀| Comment(0) | ENGLISH | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


What the Most Successful People Do on the Weekend

 出世する者はどのような週末の過ごし方をしているか みたいな記事を見つけた

洋の東西を問わず、世の中で成功を収めると とかく処世訓を並べたがる御仁が多い

ブラック企業 ユニクロのCEO 柳井もそう、また アメリカでも同様のようだ

こども服交換サービスからリサイクル販売に方向転換して成功したThredUp.comの James



リフレッシュすると 企業の経営判断に必要なヒラメキがでてくる  とか

早朝 午前6時から毎朝2時間のマラソンがいい  とか

体力のない者がマネしたら 疲労困憊で 寝たきりになりそうだ

そんな近視眼レベルの発想で 中古服の転がし で利益を生むのを思いついたのか と 感心するくらいがオチか

"週に一日くらい スマホをoffにして 休んだら" なんて 大きなお世話かもしれない

人にはそれぞれ 自分の体力と 思考パターンがあるから ステレオタイプでの アドバイスなど存在しないのではないか

ジョニーは週末 土日ともに稼ぎ時なので 休んだことがない

平日もあちこちのクリニックを文字通り 飛び回って働き通しなので

でも 発想や美的なセンスは鋭いよ

たしかに 先日 60日ぶりに 日本国内で丸一日 休暇を取ったら 背中に羽が生えたように身体が軽くなり たいへん驚いたけど

サラリーマンは この休日を週に2日もとれるなんて 本当にうらやましく思う



休みの日の旅行の計画や国際線の予約の手配 などは 旅行そのもの よりも楽しいかもしれない


By Laura Vanderkam

The author of What the Most Successful People Do on the Weekend shows us how to have more get-up-and-get-ahead during the rest of the week.

1. They Don’t Keep Spinning.

Yes, successful people work a lot. Martha Stewart, for instance, has famously claimed to sleep just four hours a night. But there are times to push and times not to. We need both. "A decade ago, I let my days just sort of all blend together," says James Reinhart, whose San Francisco-based online clothing resale platform ThredUp.com has grown from 30 employees to 140 in the past year. After starting the company, though, he realized that "it’s the quality of my decision making that ultimately makes the company successful." Without the time to go into refresh mode, "you never end up with the space to think."

So now he makes a point of golfing from 6 to 8 in the morning before his family wakes up, getting out with his daughter, and running. Reinhart claims to do his best thinking while hitting the trails in a nearby state park. "I come back from runs with clarity on decisions I want to make," he says. (He may be onto something: A number of neurological studies have found that exercise improves brain function.)

Of course, in a world where we tether ourselves to our inboxes, unplugging is easier said than done. You take your iPhone along when you meet a friend for coffee. She’s five minutes late. You start checking your email and, boom! Work mode is back. That’s part of modern life, but you can still carve out a few hours for a "tech Sabbath," which is time with no electronic devices. Try turning the smartphone off Friday or Saturday night and turning it back on 24 hours later. Probably nothing has changed, save for the level of your energy.

2. They Don't Go Limp.

If you spend your workweek running -- or worse, flying -- from place to place, you may think you want to collapse on the couch all weekend. But resist the urge: First, it’s impossible to do "nothing." Second: Think of the logistics. Want tickets to Cirque du Soleil? So do other people. Need a babysitter? She won’t show up on a whim. Finally, research into human happiness is finding that anticipation accounts for a major chunk of the mood boost associated with any activity. One well-known Dutch study of vacationers found that holiday-goers were happier than people who weren’t taking vacations, but the increased happiness largely happened before the trips, as people anticipated the fun to come. Compare it to opening Christmas presents: The act only takes an hour, but seeing wrapped gifts under the tree stretches out the joy for weeks. If you make a reservation on Wednesday for a Saturday-night dinner at your favorite restaurant, you’ll spend the next three days imagining your pasta carbonara to come -- which improves your weekend and your week.

3. They Don't Clean the Grout.

Using the weekend to catch up on chores is probably the hardest trap to avoid. After all, if you work full-time, when else are you supposed to do the 15.1 hours (for women) or 9.6 hours (for men) of household activities that the Bureau of Labor Statistics claims the average American does each week? But housework will take all the time you are willing to give it. After all, women in 1965 spent more than 30 hours each week on housework... and we haven’t descended into complete filth since then.

So consider doing your chores during the workweek; the chores will take less time because you have less time. This will leave your weekends free for more rejuvenating activities. Throw a load of laundry in before dinner and have the kids either do the dishes after or fold. Make a quick trip to the grocery store at 8:30 p.m. on a Wednesday. The place will be so empty you’ll zoom through. If a sparkling house is important to you -- and sometimes it is -- then designate a short cleaning time on the weekend, perhaps on Sunday afternoon. That way, if you find yourself looking at a messy house on Saturday morning, you can tell yourself that there’s a time for cleaning, and now is not that time. When the cleaning window arrives, set an alarm and do as much as you can in an hour. When the time is up, it’s up.

4. They Don't Lose the Last 15 Hours.
I struggle with this trap myself. I love what I do, but sometimes the sheer volume of work waiting for me Monday morning makes me look at the clock come Sunday afternoon and fall into a total Sunday funk. But the thing is: At 3 p.m. on Sunday, I still have 15 hours before I’ll wake up Monday morning, including seven hours before I need to go to bed. Why not seize that time?

This is why Sunday nights have become my new favorite time to host parties. Most people are free, and there’s a more relaxed vibe than at the formal get-togethers people expect on Saturday nights. Order food, have a beer, enjoy your friends, and you’ll be far readier for the workweek than if you spend that same time thinking about your inbox. As Reinhart puts it, failing to relax, run and refresh on weekends "makes me not a good husband, not a good dad and a terrible CEO." Success requires recharging the batteries from time to time, so you can hit Monday refreshed and ready to conquer -- if not the world, then at least your own life.


posted by 美容外科医ジョニー Plastic Surgeon Johnny at 16:22| 東京 ☀| Comment(0) | ENGLISH | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


Have a drink on Mars 火星でお水どーぞ

2013年3月14日付けCNN 電子版によれば 

NASAの科学者たちは3月12日 最新の火星探索により、この星に地球上の水と同じ、新鮮な普通の水が存在することを公表した

これは いままでの火星探検でのもっとも重要な発見らしい
酸性でなく中性の水があることで 普遍的生物の生存が可能になるからだ

ただそれだけのことになんで大騒ぎするのか と門外漢のジョニーにはちょっと不思議な感もあるのだが・・

大まじめに 草花に感情があるかどうか を研究する国なので 火星に生物が存在するのかどうか は充分 彼らの好奇心を満たすテーマなんだろう

NASA CURIOSITY MARS という 火星探索チーム名にも 好奇心URIOSITY  と銘打ってある



GPS や 自動車に搭載のカーナビもNASAの技術から派生したことを考えれば、オバマ大統領の号令一下、財政緊縮してもなお 宇宙研究に予算を割くのはその軍事技術の維持と向上のためなんだろう

日本でも 隼 はやぶさ の偉業のおかげで 宇宙航空関係の研究予算が削減を免れたことは記憶に新しい


Editor's note: Jim Bell is a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and a member of the NASA Curiosity Mars rover camera team. He is the president of The Planetary Society and author of "Postcards from Mars," "Mars-3D," and "The Space Book."

(CNN) -- An announcement on Tuesday marked, quite literally, a watershed moment in the history of solar system exploration. NASA scientists said an analysis of drilled rock samples collected by the Curiosity rover shows that ancient Mars could have supported living microbes.

It is the first time that we've discovered actual evidence for fresh water on another planet.
We've been down this watery path before -- sort of. Back in 2004, NASA's Opportunity rover found evidence of ancient water on Mars.

For a place to be habitable by life as we know it, it has to have liquid water, heat sources like volcanoes or impact craters, and carbon-bearing organic molecules.

NASA: Yes, Mars could have hosted life

Mars had abundant volcanoes and impacts early on, and Opportunity rover scientists finally found smoking gun evidence for the ancient liquid water. What that rover couldn't tell us was whether Mars had organic molecules. But organic molecules get delivered to planets all the time from impacts by small and large asteroids and comets (like February's fireball impact above Chelyabinsk, Russia), providing the last key ingredient for habitability. That argument sealed the deal back in 2004: Mars was habitable. Cool!

But the evidence we found in the rocks back then prescribed a very specific kind of habitable environment, and one that many biologists think is quite rare and special. The rocks contained abundant sulfur minerals, implying that the water in which they formed contained sulfuric acid.

On Earth there are micro-organisms that can live, and even thrive, in acidic water, even battery acid. But these are rare and specialized niche organisms, what biologists call "extremophiles," because they love extreme environmental conditions. Still, extreme conditions or not, it meant that Mars could have been habitable for some forms of life.

Now fast-forward to 2013, where in the past few weeks the Curiosity rover has been drilling into some different rocks half a planet away, inside a deep basin formed by the Gale impact crater. Armed with more sophisticated analysis tools than earlier rover teams, Curiosity scientists have been able to conclusively find the first on-the-ground evidence for the presence of abundant clay minerals within those drilled rocks.

Clays are water-loving materials (just ask any friends who make pottery), sometimes forming from the interaction of water and different kinds of precursor volcanic rocks, and holding much of that water within their mineral structures.

But here's the catch: Clay minerals are easily dissolved in acidic water. Because they are preserved in the Gale crater still today, it implies that the water there had relatively little acidity -- that is, it was fresh water, like the water you'd find in most ponds or lakes on Earth today.

Indeed, there's geologic evidence from the rover and from NASA's Mars orbiters that there may once have been a large lake and streams within the basin that Curiosity is driving around in now.

And there's more to be excited about.

Micro-organisms on Earth are much more common in fresh water than acidic water, and so rather than Mars just having been a potential haven for some extreme forms of life, Curiosity's discovery means that Mars had -- and still preserves evidence of -- environments that were habitable for an enormous variety of micro-organisms that thrive on our own planet.

It seems as though NASA or other space agencies "rediscover" water on Mars every few years, so maybe this latest announcement will be regarded as just more of the same. But this time it's different -- really! The stakes have just been raised a notch: Not only is there another planet right next door in our own solar system that had habitable environments on its surface long ago, but there appear to have been common and recognizable -- perhaps even Earthlike -- environments on Mars. That's the big news coming out of this latest discovery from NASA's Mars rovers.

Curiosity is only about a quarter of the way through its primary mission, so there's lots of time to search for more watery evidence, as well as for any elusive associated organic molecules, which have yet to be found. Because of abundant solar ultraviolet radiation at the surface, organic molecules might not be preserved as well as clay minerals. But Curiosity has the tools, and the brainpower back here on Earth, to find out.

The implications of discovering evidence for fresh water are exciting for macro-organisms as well: Rover chief scientist John Grotzinger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has speculated that we would have been able to drink that ancient water, had we been there some 2, 3, or 4 billion years ago to witness glorious Lake Gale.
Imagine that. Let's go back in time -- how would you like your water? Sparkling, fresh, or Martian?


a watershed moment turning point, epoch making

microbe germ

smoking gun evidence  indisputable evidence or proof, especially of a crime

abundant plentiful

niche specific

posted by 美容外科医ジョニー Plastic Surgeon Johnny at 12:43| 東京 ☀| Comment(0) | ENGLISH | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする