2013年04月22日

Have a drink on Mars 火星でお水どーぞ




2013年3月14日付けCNN 電子版によれば 

NASAの科学者たちは3月12日 最新の火星探索により、この星に地球上の水と同じ、新鮮な普通の水が存在することを公表した

これは いままでの火星探検でのもっとも重要な発見らしい
酸性でなく中性の水があることで 普遍的生物の生存が可能になるからだ

ただそれだけのことになんで大騒ぎするのか と門外漢のジョニーにはちょっと不思議な感もあるのだが・・

大まじめに 草花に感情があるかどうか を研究する国なので 火星に生物が存在するのかどうか は充分 彼らの好奇心を満たすテーマなんだろう

NASA CURIOSITY MARS という 火星探索チーム名にも 好奇心URIOSITY  と銘打ってある

NASAの研究、開発から民生に役立つ、さまざまな技術が生まれている

調理用フライパンにまでNASAの発明が生かされているという

GPS や 自動車に搭載のカーナビもNASAの技術から派生したことを考えれば、オバマ大統領の号令一下、財政緊縮してもなお 宇宙研究に予算を割くのはその軍事技術の維持と向上のためなんだろう

日本でも 隼 はやぶさ の偉業のおかげで 宇宙航空関係の研究予算が削減を免れたことは記憶に新しい



(以下引用)



Editor's note: Jim Bell is a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and a member of the NASA Curiosity Mars rover camera team. He is the president of The Planetary Society and author of "Postcards from Mars," "Mars-3D," and "The Space Book."

(CNN) -- An announcement on Tuesday marked, quite literally, a watershed moment in the history of solar system exploration. NASA scientists said an analysis of drilled rock samples collected by the Curiosity rover shows that ancient Mars could have supported living microbes.

It is the first time that we've discovered actual evidence for fresh water on another planet.
We've been down this watery path before -- sort of. Back in 2004, NASA's Opportunity rover found evidence of ancient water on Mars.

For a place to be habitable by life as we know it, it has to have liquid water, heat sources like volcanoes or impact craters, and carbon-bearing organic molecules.

NASA: Yes, Mars could have hosted life


Mars had abundant volcanoes and impacts early on, and Opportunity rover scientists finally found smoking gun evidence for the ancient liquid water. What that rover couldn't tell us was whether Mars had organic molecules. But organic molecules get delivered to planets all the time from impacts by small and large asteroids and comets (like February's fireball impact above Chelyabinsk, Russia), providing the last key ingredient for habitability. That argument sealed the deal back in 2004: Mars was habitable. Cool!

But the evidence we found in the rocks back then prescribed a very specific kind of habitable environment, and one that many biologists think is quite rare and special. The rocks contained abundant sulfur minerals, implying that the water in which they formed contained sulfuric acid.


On Earth there are micro-organisms that can live, and even thrive, in acidic water, even battery acid. But these are rare and specialized niche organisms, what biologists call "extremophiles," because they love extreme environmental conditions. Still, extreme conditions or not, it meant that Mars could have been habitable for some forms of life.

Now fast-forward to 2013, where in the past few weeks the Curiosity rover has been drilling into some different rocks half a planet away, inside a deep basin formed by the Gale impact crater. Armed with more sophisticated analysis tools than earlier rover teams, Curiosity scientists have been able to conclusively find the first on-the-ground evidence for the presence of abundant clay minerals within those drilled rocks.

Clays are water-loving materials (just ask any friends who make pottery), sometimes forming from the interaction of water and different kinds of precursor volcanic rocks, and holding much of that water within their mineral structures.

But here's the catch: Clay minerals are easily dissolved in acidic water. Because they are preserved in the Gale crater still today, it implies that the water there had relatively little acidity -- that is, it was fresh water, like the water you'd find in most ponds or lakes on Earth today.

Indeed, there's geologic evidence from the rover and from NASA's Mars orbiters that there may once have been a large lake and streams within the basin that Curiosity is driving around in now.

And there's more to be excited about.

Micro-organisms on Earth are much more common in fresh water than acidic water, and so rather than Mars just having been a potential haven for some extreme forms of life, Curiosity's discovery means that Mars had -- and still preserves evidence of -- environments that were habitable for an enormous variety of micro-organisms that thrive on our own planet.

It seems as though NASA or other space agencies "rediscover" water on Mars every few years, so maybe this latest announcement will be regarded as just more of the same. But this time it's different -- really! The stakes have just been raised a notch: Not only is there another planet right next door in our own solar system that had habitable environments on its surface long ago, but there appear to have been common and recognizable -- perhaps even Earthlike -- environments on Mars. That's the big news coming out of this latest discovery from NASA's Mars rovers.

Curiosity is only about a quarter of the way through its primary mission, so there's lots of time to search for more watery evidence, as well as for any elusive associated organic molecules, which have yet to be found. Because of abundant solar ultraviolet radiation at the surface, organic molecules might not be preserved as well as clay minerals. But Curiosity has the tools, and the brainpower back here on Earth, to find out.

The implications of discovering evidence for fresh water are exciting for macro-organisms as well: Rover chief scientist John Grotzinger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has speculated that we would have been able to drink that ancient water, had we been there some 2, 3, or 4 billion years ago to witness glorious Lake Gale.
Imagine that. Let's go back in time -- how would you like your water? Sparkling, fresh, or Martian?

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/03/14/opinion/bell-mars-water



a watershed moment turning point, epoch making


microbe germ


smoking gun evidence  indisputable evidence or proof, especially of a crime

abundant plentiful


niche specific













posted by 美容外科医ジョニー Plastic Surgeon Johnny at 12:43| 東京 ☀| Comment(0) | ENGLISH | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2013.4.22 の ルフトハンザ航空ストでほぼ全便欠航中






従業員のストライキだから まあしょうがないのだが・・
この時期に 日本国内から ルフトハンザを使っての旅行を計画していた旅行者はいい迷惑

しかも 運休の告知と その詳細は英語とドイツ語のみの記載だ




本日3/22 (日本時間 3/23 07:00まで) フランクフルトからの長距離便50のうち 運行されるのは 6便

ミュンヘンからの 17便のうち 運行は 3便

デュッセルドルフからの 3便は すべて運行されるようだ



本日2013.4.22 ルフトハンザ航空で運休の日本関係のフライトは



LH710 フランクフルト13:50〜成田

LH714 ミュンヘン16:00〜成田

LH740 フランクフルト13:40〜大阪関空



なにも記載がないのが
LH736 フランクフルト14:10〜名古屋



(以下引用)




4月22日、ストライキの実施により日本発着便およびヨーロッパ内路線の運航に大きな影響がでています

Strike actions announced for Monday, 22 April 2013
The Lufthansa Group’s flight operations will be considerably restricted on Monday 22 April 2013 as a result of the planned warning strike by the ver.di trade union.

Due to the announced strike actions on Monday, 22 April, nearly all Lufthansa flights within Germany and Europe will be cancelled. Only a select few short-haul flights will operate on Monday, such as in Berlin, where strike actions should end by 2:30pm CET. In all, only 20 of the 1,650 planned Lufthansa short-haul flights on Monday will operate due to the limited flight schedule.

In addition to the cancellations in Germany and Europe, massive flight cancellations and delays are to be expected for long-haul flights beginning Sunday April, 21. Of the 50 planned flights in Frankfurt, only six will operate; in Munich, of the 17 planned flights, only three will operate; whereas, in Dusseldorf all three long-haul flights are scheduled to operate as planned.


Flights operated by Germanwings will not be affected.


http://www.lufthansa.com/de/en/Travel-information



posted by 美容外科医ジョニー Plastic Surgeon Johnny at 12:37| 東京 ☀| Comment(0) | 海外出張・ステイ | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする